Digital Communication


Digital Communication

R operators: overview – IONOS


Operators are a fundamental component of every programming language, including the R language. With R operators, you can perform assignments, arithmetic calculations, as well as comparisons and even evaluate logical expressions.

R operators: what is an R operator?

The R operators (or R operators in English) are strings of characters or special symbols used to perform operations on values ​​or variables. These operations may include arithmetic calculations, comparisons, assignments, or a range of other actions. Operators play a decisive role in the transformation, manipulation and analyzes of data in R, and are a pillar of R programming.

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What are the different types of R operators?

R operators can be divided into different types depending on their functionality. Note that this list is not exhaustive, but contains the main types of operators in R.

  • Arithmetic operators in R : they are used for arithmetic calculations.
  • Logical operators in R : Logical operators in R are used to compare logical values ​​and evaluate logical expressions. They return a logical value.
  • Bitwise operators in R : they allow the manipulation of bits in a number.
  • Assignment operators in R : Assignment operators are used to assign values ​​to variables.
  • Relational operators in R : This type of R operators is used to compare values ​​and create logical expressions.

Unlike many other programming languages, in R there is no no explicit increment or decrement operators. If you need such functionality in While loops in R or in For loops, you can perform addition or subtraction with 1.

R operators: arithmetic operators

Arithmetic operators (arithmetic operators in English) are used to execute mathematical calculationslike basic operations.

Operator Description Example Result
+ Adding numbers 5 + 3 8
- Subtraction of numbers 10 – 5 5
* Multiplication of numbers 3* 5 15
/ Division of numbers 10 / 2 5
%% Modulo; indicates the remainder of a division 10%% 4 2
%/% Division by a whole number 11 %/% 3 3
^ Exponentiation 2 ^ 3 8

Arithmetic R operators in code

a <- 7
b <- 3

addition <- a + b
soustraction <- a - b
multiplication <- a * b
division <- a / b
modulo <- a %% b
division par un nombre entier <- a %/% b
exponentiation <- 2^3


R operators: software operators

Logical operators (software operators in English) are used in R to compare logical values and evaluate logical expressions. They always return a logical value as a result, which can be TRUE Or FALSE.

Operator Description Example Result
& logical AND; return TRUE if the two values ​​are TRUE. TRUE & FALSE FALSE
` ` Pipe operator in R for logical OR; return TRUE if one of the two values ​​is TRUE. `TRUE
! NOT logical; inverts the logic value. !TRUE FALSE

Code Examples for Logical Operators in R

x <- TRUE
y <- FALSE

opérateur_et <- x & y
opérateur_ou <- x | y
opérateur_non <- !x


R operators: bitwise operators

Bit operators (bitwise operators in English) allow you to manipulate the bits of a number. To understand how these operators really work, you need in-depth knowledge about the binary system, the base 2 numbering system.

Operator Description Example Result
bitwAnd AND per bit bitwAnd(5,3) 1
bitwOr OR by bit bitwOr(5,3) 7
bitwXor XOR (Or exclusive) per bit bitwXor(5,3) 6
bitwNot NOT per bit bitwNot(5) -6
bitwShiftL Shift left per bit -> Shift the number of bits indicated in the second parameter, to the left bitwShiftL(5, 1) 10
bitwShiftR Right shift per bit -> Shift the number of bits indicated in the first parameter, to the right bitwShiftR(5, 1) 2

Bit operators in R code

a <- 5
b <- 3

et_par_bit <- bitwAnd(a, b)
ou_par_bit <- bitwOr(a, b)
xor_par_bit <- bitwXor(a, b)
not_par_bit<- bitwNot(a)
décalagegauche<- bitwShiftL(a, 1)
décalagedroite<- bitwShiftR(a, 1)


R operators: relational operators

Comparison operators (relational operators in English) are used to compare values. They return a Boolean value as a result, i.e. TRUE (true), either FALSE (fake).

Operator Description Example Result
== Comparing the equality of two values 5 == 3 FALSE
!= Comparing the inequality of two values 5 != 3 TRUE`
< Compare if the value on the left is less than the value on the right. 5 < 3 FALSE
> Compare if the value on the left is greater than the value on the right. 5 > 3 TRUE
<= Compares whether the value on the left is less than or equal to the value on the right. 5 <= 3 FALSE
>= Compares whether the value on the left is greater than or equal to the value on the right. 5 >= 3 TRUE

Comparison operators in code

x <- 5
y <- 3

égal <- x == y
inégal <- x != y
inférieur_à <- x< y
supérieur_à <- x > y
inférieur_ou_égal_à <- x <= y
supérieur_ou_égal_à <- x >= y


R operators: assignment operators

The assignment operators (assignment operators in English) are used to assign specific values ​​to variables. They are essential for every programming language. In R, there are different assignment operators, but the operator <- is however most often used.

Operator Description Example Result
= Higher level assignment operator, mainly used in functions to assign arguments. matrix(1, nrow = 2) After execution, there is no named variable nrow.
<- Arrow assignment operator used to assign simple numeric values ​​or complex values, such as R lists, to variables and create new objects. matrix(1, nrow <- 2) After execution, there is a variable named nrow.
<- Assignment operator in functions, which searches for an existing definition of the variable in the environment; if necessary, creates a new variable. a <<- 1 If has Already exists, has now has the value 1, otherwise has is created with the value 1.

Code examples with assignment operators in R

matrix(1, nrow=2)
b <- 3
test <- function() {
   a <<- 1


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